Student, Graphic Sketch Club, 1934-1938; student, Philadelphia Museum College Art, 1938-1940; student, Pennsylvania Academy Fine Arts, 1940-1941; student, New School for Social Research, 1949-1950; student, Art Students League, New York City, 1950-1951; student, Hans Hoffman School Painting, New York City, 1951-1952.
Faculty University California, Berkeley, summers 1960, 63. Visiting critic Cornell University, University Arkansas, University Iowa, University West Virginia, University Wisconsin, University New Mexico. Artist in residence Princeton University, 1963-1966.
Faculty Columbia University, 1966-1974, New School for Social Research, since 1966, Brooklyn College, from 1974.
Member of National Academy of Design (academician since 1995).