Bachelor in Southeast Asian Studies, University Hull, England, 1991. Doctor of Philosophy, University London, Royal Holloway College, 1995.
Journalist Star Newspaper, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1982—1988. Assistant editor Sun Newspaper, 1995—2000. Senior lecturer University Malaya, Department History, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, since 2000.
Contributor World Wildlife Fund Malaysia, 2005—2008. Member of Association Study Ethnicity Nationalism.