Juan Vicente Gómez came into power by a coup d'étatd'etat in 1908 while the dictator Cipriano Castro was in Europe. A new consitiution was framed in 1909 and Gómez became constitutional president in 1910. He put down two revolts in 1913. In 1914 a new document, drawn up by him, provided for a constitutional dictatorship, but another more to his liking was adopted in 1922. Gómez governed directly, or through his position as commander of the army. In 1925 another constitution was promulgated. Although Gómez was virtually illiterate he preserved peace, reorganized the country's finances, and began paying off the excessive foreign debt created by his predecessor--this before prosperity following the oil boom had filled the country's coffers. In 1929 he was reelected but refused to accept the title of president, retaining control through his position as commander in chief of the army. In 1931 he again assumed direct power.