Bachelor in Sacred Theology, Catholic University America, 1961. Licence in Canon Law, Gregorian University, Rome, 1963. Doctor in Canon Law, Gregorian University, Rome, 1964.
Doctor of Humane Letters (honorary), St. Louis University, 1995.
Ordained priest Archdiocese of Los Angeles, 1961. Served at Apostolic Nunciature Madagascar, 1966—1970. Named Papal Chamberlain to Pope Paul VI, 1967.
Ordained bishop, 1985. Titular archbishop Volsinium, 1985—1994. President Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1985—1989.
Secretary Congregation of Bishops, 1989—1994, College of Cardinals, Rome, 1990—1994. Archbishop Archdiocese of St. Louis, 1994—2003, Archdiocese of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, since 2003. Elevated to cardinal, 2003.
Cardinal-priest S. Prisca, since 2003. Apostolic administrator Diocese of Scranton, 2009—2010.