Doctor of Medicine, University Helsinki, 1954. Specialist psychiatry and neurology, University Helsinki, 1960. Doctor of Philosophy, University Helsinki, 1961.
Lecturer psychiatry University Helsinki, Finland, 1963-1967, 92-95, professor psychiatry, department chairman, 1968-1991. Professor psychiatry University Turku, Finland, 1964. Chairman medical history museum University Helsinki, 1982-1991.
Honorary chairman federal board Finnish Association Mental Health, since 1992. Honorary member executive committee Helsinki Suicide Prevention Center, since 1992. Member Finnish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina, Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea, Salzburg, World Psychology Association (honorary), Finnish Club, Finnish Psychology Association (honorary).
Children: Anna-Maija, Elina, Kristiina.