Graduate, University Munich, 1952. Habilitation, University Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1962. Doctor of Philosophy (honorary), University Posen, Poland, 1984.
Assistant, Max Planck Institute for History, Göttingen, 1958-1964; professor, Technology Higher School, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany, 1964; professor emeritus, Technology Higher School, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany director, Institute for European History, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany, since 1968.
Member Austrian Academy of Sciences, Royal Academy London, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (honorary), Royal History Society London (correspondent fellow).
Married Ruth Uta von Tresckow, February 19, 1931. Children: Felicitas, Caroline, Cajetan.