Machijiri graduated from the 21st class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1909, where his classmates included Kanji Ishihara, Jo Iimura and Harukichi Hyakutake. He later graduated from the 29th class of the Army Staff College in 1917.
He was adopted into the kazoku peerage by Viscount Machijiri Kazuhiro and inherited the title of shishaku. He was a military attaché to France from 1919–1921, participated for three months in the Versailles Peace Treaty Negotiations, and remained as a resident officer in Paris from 1921–1923, and again from 1925-1926. Machijiri was Aide-de-camp to the Emperor of Japan from 1930-1935.
From 1935-1936, he commanded the Artillery Regiment of the Imperial Guard, and served as Chief of Army Affairs Section of Military Affairs Bureau within the Ministry of War from 1936-1938.
He returned to Japan the same year for staff duties within the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, but was sent into the field again from 1939-1941 as commander of the IJA 6th Division. From 1941-1942, he was Inspector-General of the Chemical Warfare Section.
In 1942, Machijiri was appointed commander of the Indochina Garrison Army. Recalled to Japan in 1944, he survived the war and went into retirement in 1945.