A native of Toyoura District, Yamaguchi and graduate of Hosei University he was elected for the first time in 1996 after serving in local assemblies. Tanaka was elected seven times in Kanagawa, prefecture 10th diserict
Tanaka is general director of the Liberal Democratic Party International bureu in 2015. Tanaka was elected to the Kawasaki Municipal Assembly, since then re-elected once,1983.Then he was elected to the Kanagawa Prefectural Assembly,1991.
He was elected to the House of Representatives for the first time in the 1996 general election.
He was Parliamentary Secretary of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi in 2001.He was Parliamentary Secretary for Finance in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi in 2002. He was Parliamentary Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi in 2003.
He was Vice Minister of Finance the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe on 26 September 2006.Tnaka was Senior Vice Minister of Environment the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe on 26 December 2012.