Master of Arts, University Helsinki, 1966. Doctor of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University, 1973. Doctor of Philosophy (honorary), University Oulu, Finland, 1994.
Researcher, Nursing Research Institute, Helsinki, 1966-1968; associate professor Institute Political Science, U. Helsinki, 1971-1973; professor health policy and management, U. Kuopio, Finland, 1974-1977, 79-; vice rector, U. Kuopio, Finland, 1982-1984; dean faculty of social science, U. Kuopio, Finland, 1988-1994; senior researcher, Finnish Academy Science, 1977-1979; board directors, Finnish Academy Science, 1986-1989; researcher, Nursing Research Institute, Helsinki, 1966-1968.
Member City Council of Kuopio, since 1980, vice chairman, 1991-1992. Member Health Board, Kuopio, Social Board, Kuopio. Member European Healthcare Management Association (board directors), Finnish Political Science Association, Finnish Administrative Science Association, National Social Science Research Council (chairman 1986-1989).