Doctor of law (Law) University Vienna, 1938. Master of Arts Glasgow University, 1940.
Assistant Lector, Glasgow University,
1940-1947. Senior Research Worker, Austrian Institute, Institution Economics Research, Vienna, 1947-1966. Professor, University Linz, Austria, 1966-1982.
Visiting Professor, Universities Dundee, 1959-1960, Strathclyde, 1966, Saarbrücken, 1968-1969, Salford, 1975, Monash, 1981. Professor of Economics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria, since 1982. Editorial Board, Kyklos, Empirica, Empirical Economics, World Development, Ökonomie und Gesellschaft.
Starting off mainly with work on microeconomic problems of price and wage theory, my interests then turned increasingly to macroeconomic Keynesian-type themes with labour-market and working-class questions in the foreground: full employment (theory and policy), wage formation, income distribution and economic systems. Parallel with this (and in connection with my work at the Austrian Research Institute, Institution) I also worked in the field of international trade with special stress on the problem of small open economies. My methodological ‘credo’ is to try to deal in an undogmatic way with real-world economic and social problems.
This has led to some polemics against the rigidities of neoclassical orthodoxy.