Doctor of Medicine, University Helsinki, 1968. Doctor of Philosophy, University Helsinki.
Clinical research fellow Wilmer Institute Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1967—1969. Senior lecturer ophthalmology University Tampere, 1977, University Oulu, 1977. Senior research worker Smith-Kettlewell Eye Res Institute, 1987—1988.
Assistant chief medical officer Institute Occupational Health, 1988—1991. Honorary professor University Dortmund, Germany, since 2003. Senior lecturer, Development Neuropsychology University Helsinki, 2004.
Private practice & researcher worker. Honorary advisory University Tianjin, 1991. Honorary member Estonian Ophthalmological Society, 1992.
First ophthalmologist Vision Rehabilitation Center Finland, 1976—1979. Lecturer Vision and Ophthalmology, Nordic Staff Training Center Deafblind Services, Dronninglund, Denmark, 1981—1987. World Health Organization advisory EMRO Countries, since 2003.
Chairperson Association Occupational Vision. Fellow: American Academy Pediatrics. Member: American Association Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.