Bachelor in History, Columbia University, 1964. Master of Arts in African History, University of California at Los Angeles, 1966. CPhil in History, University of California at Los Angeles, 1969.
Doctor of Philosophy in History, University of California at Los Angeles, 1974.
Instructor Africian history Santa Ana (California) College, 1971-1972, University Redlands, California, 1971. Lecturer in Africian history University California, Irvine, 1971-1974. Assistant professor history Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, 1974-1975.
Associate professor history Voorhees College, Denmark, South Carolina, 1975-1978, professor history, since 2004. Associate professor and Andrew W. Mellon faculty Fellow in the Humanities, Harvard University, Cambrige, Massachusetts, 1978-1980. Professor history and English Institute Foreign Living Languages University Constantine, Algeria, 1980-1983.
Senior editor, program specialist, professor European Center Higher Education, United Nations Educational, Bucharest, Romania, 1983—2004.
Secretary, then president residents committee Foundation des Etats, Paris, 1968-1969. Member Society Francaise d'Histoire d'Outre-Mer, American History Association, Africian Studies Association, Society Géographie de Paris, Diplomatic Club of Bucharest.
Married Jacqueline M. Bouchereau, 1974 (divorced 1982). Married Adra Benaissa, February 8, 1985. 1 child, Nassima Irene.