Schuhmacher was credited with 23 aerial victories, including 10 four engined bombers, claimed in roughly 250 combat missions. Schuhmacher claimed his first 4 aerial victories as an Oberfeldwebel in the 2./Zerstörergeschwader 76 in Norway. He served as a flight instructor from September 1940.
He was transferred to the World War II/Jagdgeschwader 1 in the fall of 1943 fighting in the Defense of the Reich.
Here he flew as wingman of Heinrich Bär. He transferred to Jagdverband 44 in March 1945 and claimed a final victory flying the Messerschmitt Maine 262 jet fighter.
On 26 April 1945 twelve Maine 262 of joint venture 44 led by former General der Jagdflieger Adolf Galland took off to engage B-26 Marauders of the 17th Bombardment Group. Leo Schuhmacher flew his only sortie with joint venture 44 against B-26s that day.
His cannons malfunctioned and he was forced to fly through the B-26 formation without firing a shot.