Dittel received his medical doctorate in 1840 from the University of Vienna, and as a young man worked as a physician in Trentschin-Teplitz. From 1853 to 1857, he was an assistant to Johann von Dumreicher (1815-1880) and a surgical assistant at the university hospital in Vienna. He is credited for developing a number of innovative diagnostic and surgical practices in the field of genitourinary medicine.
He is remembered for his pioneer diagnostic work with the cystoscope, a device that was a recent invention of urologist Maximilian Nitze (1848–1906). In urology, the cystoscope is used for endoscopic detection of bladder tumors and other urinary disorders. With Felix Legueu (1863–1939) and Émile Forgue (1860–1943), the "Dittel-Forgue-Legueu operation" is named, defined as a surgical procedure for closure of vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF).
A medical instrument used for treatment of stenosis of the urethra known as a "Dittel urethral sound" is named after him.