Graduated in physics from Moscow University.
In the mid-1960s, became active in the Russian religious movement. Compiled an extensive history of the Russian Orthodox Church under communism, Tragedia Russkoi Tserkvi, published in Paris. Arrested, 1979. Admitted anti-Soviet activity.
Released after trial. Gave up his samizdat activity.
Religion is bad because it imposes irrational rules of good and bad behaviour.