Licensed science economics, U. Louvain, Belgium, 1978; Master of Arts, University of Southern California, 1979; Doctor of Philosophy, University of Chicago, 1988.
Intern, International Monetary Fund, Washington, 1982;
economist, Banca d'Italia, Rome, 1983-1987;
head section research, Banca d'Italia, Rome, 1987-1994;
head policy division, European Monetary Institute, Frankfurt, Germany, since 1994. Alternate Monetary Committee European Economic Community, 1990-1992. Member Monetary Policy Subcommittee, 1992-1994, Foreign Exch.
Member American Economics Association, Association Borsisti Luciano Jona.