In 1913 Harecki graduated from a college in Hory-Horki, in 1916 – from a military college in Petrahrad.
Maksim Harecki was also known by his pen-names Maksim Bełarus, Bachelor of Medicine Bełarus, M.H., A. Mścisłaŭski, Dzed Kuźma, Macej Myška, Mizeryus Monus. He had two brothers – Haŭryła and Ivan. They had a son Leanid who died in the battle of Leningrad.
Also, they had a daughter, Halina.
During the First World War he served in the Russian Army. He was wounded on October 25, 1914 and had to recover in the military hospitals of Vilnia, Moscow and Mahilioŭ.
After that, he continued to serve in the army until 1917 when he got very ill and was sent to Žaleznavodsk to recover and then left the army. Later on, Harecki moved to Smalensk and studied in the Archeological University there.
At that time he started to work for local newspapers.
Soon he moved to Miensk and in January 1919 – to, where he bagan working in the Belarusian Gymnasium of Vilnia and some newspapers. In January 1922 Harecki was arrested by Polish authorities as a political criminal and was put to jail in Vilnia. At that time, a lot of protests took place abroad, fighting mass arrests of Belarusian activists.
Because of that Harecki was sent back to Belarus.
Here he worked as a language and literature professor at some universities. In 1929 along with other Belarusian activists Harecki became a target of the company of press critics.
In April–May 1931 he was sentenced to five years of prison in Viatka. During this time Harecki wrote a lot of literature works.
On November 4, 1937 he was arrested again and later on shot in the Great Purge.
He was rehabilitated in 1957. Today Maksim Harecki is considered a classic of Belarusian literature. His books were translated into Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, and German.
He was a member of Inbelcult. He was arrested in July 1930 and accused of being a member of the Belarusian Liberation Union.