University of Toronto (Bachelor of Arts, 1974). University of British Columbia (Bachelor of Laws, 1978). University of Ottawa (Diploma, Legislative Drafting, 1986).
Worked at Smith Lyons (Toronto, ON) specializing in Banking and Financial Institution Lending, Creditors' Rights and Insolvency, Real Estate and Development. Admitted to the bar, 1979, British Columbia. 1987, Ontario.
The Canadian Bar Association.