From 1937 to 1952 she was managing director of a Angestelltenkrankenkasse ("Employee Health Insurance Company") in Hanover. From 1949 until her death, she was chair of the VWA. From 1953 to 1974, she was director of the Office of Private Health Insurance. From 1955 to 1957 she was deputy chair of the Bundestag Committee for Public Welfare.
From 1957 until her exit from the party on 1 June 1960, she was vice chair of the German Party.
She joined the Christian Democratic Union on 20 September 1960, and from 1969 to 1971 she was Landesvorsitzende ("State President") of the women"s union in Lower Saxony. Unlike most women in her party, Margot Kalinke opposed the "Stitch Ruling" (pertaining to the rights of the husband in marital disputes).
Together with Elisabeth Schwarzhaupt she orchestrated support for an opposition amendment to her own party"s bill. The Gesetz über die Gleichstellung von Mann und Frau auf dem Gebiet des bürgerlichen Rechts ("Law of Equality between Manitoba and Woman in Civil Law") was enacted on 18 June 1957 without the Stitch Clause.