Born in Lanús, Buenos Aires, Barbosa started his career with Club Atlético Banfield in 2002. In 2005 he was signed by Spanish club Villarreal CF for a fee of €2 million, alongside another player in his position, Sebastián Viera. In the summer of 2007, after the signing of Diego López, Barbosa was allowed to join fellow Louisiana Liga side Recreativo de Huelva.
Barred by Italian Stefano Sorrentino, he appeared in no games during his sole campaign.
After an unsuccessful spell, he was sold to Club Atlas of Mexico on 7 July 2009. After one year with Atlas Barbosa returned to Spain, signing for UD Las Palmas of the second level
He was an undisputed started during his spell in the Canary Islands, never featuring in less than 37 league matches. On 16 July 2014 Barbosa joined Sevilla Football Club on a free transfer, penning a two-year contract.
On 15 June of the following year, having been demoted to third-choice after the emergence of Sergio Rico, he rescinded his link.
On 9 July 2015 Barbosa returned to Villarreal, after agreeing to a two-year deal.