She was the duchesse de Vendôme by marriage. She was the Duchess of Étampes in her own right. Her siblings were:
Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon (5 November 1667 – 5 July 1670).
Anne de Bourbon (1670 – 27 May 1675).
Henri de Bourbon (1672–1675). Louis Henri de Bourbon (9 November 1673 – 1675).
Anne Marie de Bourbon (11 August 1675 – 23 October 1700). X de Bourbon (1679–1680).
Marie Anne was born and lived at the Hôtel de Condé, Paris, where her father was abusive to her as well as her mother, Anne Henriette of Bavaria.
He frequently beat them. In 1704, her father had wanted her to marry Ferdinand Charles, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat, but the proposal did not materialise and Ferdinand Charles instead married Suzanne Henriette de Lorraine known as Mademoiselle d"Elbeuf. He left her the title and estates of the dukedom of Étampes.
The marriage remained childless.
Louis Joseph died in 1712. In 1714 Marie Anne began improvements and extensions to the Hôtel de Vendôme in Paris, where she died in 1718, aged 40.
She was buried in the Carmelite Convent of the Faubourg Saint-Jacques, in Paris. 24 February 1678 – 21 May 1710 Her Serene Highness Mademoiselle de Montmorency
21 May 1710 – 11 June 1712 Her Serene Highness the Duchess of Vendôme
11 June 1712 – 11 April 1718 Her Serene Highness the Dowager Duchess of Vendôme (duchesse de Vendôme Douairière).
As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, she was a Princesse du Sang.