Candidate of Philosophy, University Helsinki, Finland, 1947. Licenciate of Philosophy, University Turku, Finland, 1966. Licenciate of Theology, University Uppsala, Sweden, 1970.
D.Th., 1970; D.(honorary), University Helsinki, 2000.
Student secretary Student Christian Federation of Finland, 1950-1951. Faculty Teacher Training School for Women, Moshi, Tanganyika, 1952-1956. Faculty, trainer in Swahili language International Training Center, Hothorpe, England, 1957-1960.
Research associate University Dar es Salaam, 1966-1970, senior research fellow, 1972-1975. Docent University Uppsala, since 1971. Lecturer University Helsinki, 1975-1981, docent, since 1975, assistant professor, 1971-1972, 75-81, director Institute Development Studies, 1981-1989, director research Institute Development Studies, 1987-1989, acting professor cultural anthropology, 1986, honorary professor, 1993—1998.
Senior fellow UNU World Institute Development Economics Research, Helsinki, 1987-1989. Visiting professor WNW World Institute Development Economics Research, 1993-1998. Director international research project, Tanzania, 1975-1979.
Consultant government leaders and ministries, Tanzania. Consultant Ministry Foreign Affairs, Finland, Denmark, Norway. Researcher United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, field researcher, Tanzania, 1965-1970, 72-75.
Visiting professor University Wisconsin, summers 1982, 83.
Chairman Finland-Tanzania Friendship Society, 1976-1983. Member national commission and social science committee United Nations Educational, 1978-1988, also chairman development committee, 1986-1995. Board directors Finnish Missionary Society.
Member women's commission Ecumenical Council Finland. Member Commission on Churches' Participation in Development, World Council Churches. Board directors Scandinavian Institute African Studies, 1982-1992.
Served with Anti-Aircraft, Finland, 1944. Member Finnish Anthropol. Society (member executive com), Finnish Literature Society (honorary), European Association Development Research and Training Institute (member executive committee, convenor working group on basic needs), Participatory Research Network in Europe (coordination committee), International Union Anthropol. and Ethnological Sciences (member permanent council).
Married Lloyd F. William Swantz, November 27, 1954. Children: Aili Mari, Eva Liisa, Lea June.