Bachelor of science in nursing, St Louis University, 1953. MSN, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1958. Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, 1966.
Assistant director night nursing services Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, 1957—1962. Assistant professor nursing San Jose State University, California, 1962—1964. Professor nursing University California, San Francisco, 1966—1979.
Dean, school nursing University Connecticut, Storrs, 1979—1989. Orvis chair nursing research University Neveda, Reno, 1989—1992. Vice president, nursing & research Health Science Research Associate, since 1991.
Consultant Pan American Health Organization, Jamaica, 1969—1971. Committee member National Committee Legislative Proposals Nursing, Washington, 1968—1979. External examiner advanced nursing education University Wisconsin, Jamaica, 1971—1974.
Member National League Nursing, New York City, 1974—1977. Committee member research review Division Nursing, Washington, 1982—1983.
Volunteer San Jose Recreation Department, California, 1955—1973, Fleischaker Day Care Center. Speaker and consultant American Heart Association, San Francisco, 1968—1969. Fellow: American Academy Nursing (Living Legend award 2006).
Member: American Nurses' Association.