Bachelor of Science, New York University, 1951. Master of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1953. Doctor of Philosophy, Polytechnic Institute Brooklyn, 1959.
Senior aerodynamicist, Republican Aviation Corporation, Farmingdale, New York, 1955-1956; research scientist, General Applied Science laboratories, Hempstead, New York, 1956-1959; research scientist, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1959-1961; senior staff scientist, Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California, 1961-1981; professor, California State University, Northridge, since 1981; director, Video Graphics Laboratory, since 1985. Chair Pen-X Committee, Washington, 1963. Member of advisory committee Institutional Media Center, Northridge, 1985-1992.
First lieutenant United States Air Force, 1953-1955. Fellow American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (associate). Member International Interactive Communications Society, American Physical Society.
Married Marie Wallner, December 22, 1951 (divorced 1974). Children: David Sidney, Nancy Epstein. Married Joyce Brenner, April 29, 1979 (divorced 1984).
Married Golda Freedman, July 17, 1990 (divorced 1996).