Diploma, Kansas City Junior College, Kansas, 1941. Bachelor, Western Reserve University, 1943. Master of Arts, Columbia University, 1947.
Doctor of Philosophy, Columbia University, 1955.
Instructor University Wisconsin, Madison, 1950-1953, assistant professor, 1953-1956, associate professor, 1956-1960, professor, since 1960, Evjue-Bascom professor, 1982-1988, professor emeritus, since 1988. Visiting associate professor University California-Berkeley, 1956. Visiting associate Harvard University, 1957.
("keep all that it gathered beyond the stipulated amount")
Fellow Russian Research Center (Harvard University fellow 1957). Member American History Association, American Association Advancement Slavic Studies (founder, board directors 1953-1954), American Association Advancement Southeast European Studies, American Council Learned Societies (joint committee Slavic studies 1969-1971, director Eastern European History project 1973-1979) Clubs: Rotary. Literary (Madison).
Married Dushanka G. Djermanovich, November 21, 1953. Children: Vera, Irene.