From the age of seven, Miloradovich was abroad in Germany and in France.
Four years he studied at the Institute of Konigsberg specifically in Kant's two years in Göttingen, and then to improve the knowledge of the military went to Strasbourg and Metz.
He entered the army in 1780. He was promoted to major general in 1798. He served as duty general on A. V. Suvorov’s staff during the Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799. In 1805, during the retreat of the Russian Army under M. I. Kutuzov from Braunau to Olmiitz (Olomouc), Miloradovich commanded a brigade and distinguished himself in the battles of Amstetten and Krems. He was a corps commander in the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812. Miloradovich liberated Bucharest on December 13, 1806, and defeated the Turks at Turbat and Obilesti in 1807. In the Patriotic War of 1812 he commanded the right wing of the First Army in the battle of Borodino. After the battle he covered the Tarutino maneuver of the Russian Army as commander of the rear guard. During the pursuit of Napoleon’s troops he commanded the advance guard. He participated in the foreign campaigns of the Russian Army of 1813–1814. Miloradovich was appointed commander of a guards corps in 1814. He became military governor of St. Petersburg in 1818.
During the Decembrist uprising of December 14, 1825, he was fatally wounded in Senatskaia Square by P. G. Kakhovskii. He was buried with honours at the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.
Mikhail Miloradovich was a member of the State Council of the Russian Empire.
Mikhail Miloradovich never married and did not have children.