While he was running Norilsk Nickel, the company became the world's largest producer of nickel and palladium. He is the former chairman of Polyus Gold, Russia's largest gold producer, and former President of ONEXIM Group. He resigned both positions when he entered politics in June 2011.
In December 2011, Prokhorov capped a year of higher-profile political activity in Russia with the December declaration that he would run as an independent in the 2012 presidential elections. Russian prime minister and former president Vladimir Putin was the favorite in the race at the time of Prokhorov's announcement. In June 2012 he declared the establishment of new political party "Party of Civic Platform".
He is the seventh richest man from Russia and the 57th richest man in the world according to the 2012 Forbes listing with a fortune estimated at US$13.2 billion.