Bachelor of Arts, Hofstra College, 1953; A.M., Harvard University, 1954; Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University, 1959.
Instructor history, Harvard University, 1959-1961; visiting associate professor, Harvard University, summer 1963; fellow, Charles Warren Center, 1968-1969; assistant professor of history, U. Rochester, New York, 1961-1963; associate professor, U. Rochester, 1963-1970; professor, U. Rochester, 1970-1989; professor emeritus, U. Rochester, since 1989; associate department chairman, U. Rochester, 1966-1968.
Served with United States Army, 1949-1950. Member American History Association, Organisation American Historians.
Married Barbara Ann Roesch, August 18, 1968.