Kamboj received a Doctor of Medicine degree from Government Medical College and Hospital in 1999.
Kamboj began her career as a resident of Internal Medicine Residency Program at Michigan State University in 2001. Three years later she became a fellow at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Since 2007 Mini has been a director of Infection Prevention and Control Department at the same center.
Kamboj is a member of the American College of Physicians, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Disease Society of America.
On March 7, 2004 Mini Kamboj married Sandeep Singh Gill.