Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1921, Henderson played junior hockey with the Toronto Young Rangers. In 1942 he joined the Royal Canadian Air Force and was stationed on the Pacific coast where he flew patrol missions. He was discharged two years later following the death of his father.
Henderson played briefly for the Boston Olympics, a farm team of the Boston Bruins, before joining the big club for five games at the end of the 1944-1945 season.
In total Henderson played eight seasons with the Bruins and registered 24 goals and 62 assists. Following his National Hockey League career, he spent four seasons as the player-coach of the Hershey Bears.
Henderson is the nephew of the Conacher brothers Roy, Lionel and Charlie who were all inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.