Student in chemistry and chemical engineering, U. Maryland., College Park, 1941-1942;
student chemical engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1942-1943;
AB, St. Johns College, Annapolis, Maryland., l950;
Doctor of Philosophy in Biophysics and Biology, Johns Hopkins University, l958.
Research associate Psychiatric Institute,, U. Maryland., l954-60;
research consultant department neurology Medical School, U. Maryland., l960-63;
guest scientist, Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland., l954-58, 68-74;
physicist, Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland., l958-68;
head biophysics division, Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland., l966-68;
research fellow in biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, l958-68;
director research Eye Center,, Duke U. Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, l968-79;
professor biomedical engineering and ophthalmology, Duke U. Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, l979-;
associate professor neurobiology, lecturer psychology, Duke U. Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, l979-. Research consultant in neurology York (Pennsylvania) Hospital, l963-68. Chairman eye hazardssubcxom. commission on safe use of lasers American National Standards Institute, l969-;United States delegate International Electrotech.
Commission, l975-; Chairman of Commission on visionNRC. Technical advisor non-ionizing radiation Regional Office for Europe, World Health Organization, l976-. Member Executive Committee Armed Forces-National Research Council Committee on Vision, l96l-76.
Author: Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources, 1980, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Clinical Implications of Current Research, 1988. Editor Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, 4 vols., 1971, 73, 77, 89.Assistant editor Quarterly Review Biology, 1963-1968. Co-editor Laser in Surgery and Medicine, 1984-1989. Senior editor Journal Laser Applications.Editor-in-chief Lasers in The Life Sciences, since 1992.
Board visitors, board governors St. Johns College, l960-72. Fellow American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery (executive committee, chairman safety section since 1981, William B. Mark award 1989), International Commission Occupational Health, Laser Institute American (chairman medical and biology committee, president 1982-1983), Finnish Academy of Sciences and Letters (foreign), Royal Society Medicine Great Britain, Society Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Sigma Xi. Member American Association for the Advancement of Science, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (life member, associate editor transactions on biomedical Electronics 1961-1969), American Physiological Society, Optical Society of America, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Biophysics Society, Society General Physiologists, New York Academy of Sciences.
Children: Seth E., Selah A., Jeremy B.