Bachelor of Arts in American Civilization, Barnard College, 1960.
Member staff New York Times, 1959—1961. From assistant to associate editor Political Science Quarterly and Proceedings Academy Political Science, Columbia University, New York City, 1962—1970. From associate editor to managing editor American History Review American History Association, 1970—1974.
From senior editor to executive editor Oxford University Press, New York City, 1974—1997. Consultant, 1997—1998.
Volunteer Bellevue-New York University Program for Survivors of Torture, 1998-1999. Member of American Civil Liberties Union, Americans United for Separation of Church and State, Amnesty International United States of America (volunteer since 1995, torture-abolition coordinator for United States of America Group 11, member Turkey Regional Action Network Group 11).