Bachelor, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 1949. Doctor of Philosophy, Princeton University, New Jersey, 1955.
Translation analyst, Arabian American Oil Corporation, Saudi Arabia, 1955-1957; assistant professor, Stanford University, California, 1959-1962; visiting lecturer, Yale University, New Haven, 1962-1963; assistant professor, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1963-1965; associate professor, U. Washington, Seattle, 1965-1976; professor Near Eastern languages and civilization, U. Washington, 1976-1990; professor emeritus, U. Washington, since 1990; department chairman Near Eastern languages and civilization, U. Wash, 1982-1987. Middle East curator Hoover Institution, Stanford, California, 1958-1962.
Member American Oriental Society, Middle East Studies Association, American Association Teachers of Arabic (treasurer 1964-1976, president 1981, director 1982-1984).