1911 graduated Law Faculty, and 1918 History, and Philological Faculty, Moscow University.
Specialist in hist, of revolutionary movement, society thought, and society and economics hist, of 19th c. Russia; 1905 expelled from university for revolutionary activity and exiled to Saratov. After amnesty returned to Moscow and engaged in Party work.
1906 reentered Moscow University. Since 1925 Learned Secretary, section of Society of Political Prisoners and Settlers in Exile. Member, Editorial Board, symposia “Dekabristy i ikh vremya” (The Decembrists and their Times).
1945-1951 Head, Section on 19th c. Russia History, Institute of History, USSR Academy of Science. 1945-1957 member, Editor Board, journal “Voprosy istorii” (Problems of History).
1947-1953 member, Editor Board, journal “Istoricheskie zapiski” (Historical Notes). 1946 elected corresponding member, USSR Academy of Science. Coauthor and Editor, vols.
3 and 6 multi-volume “Istoriya Moskvy” (History of Moscow). Chairman, Editorial Board, multi-volume “Ocherki po istorii USSR” (Outline History of the USSR). Editor, 10 volume collection of documents on hist, of peasantry in Russia.
Editor, other research works and publications. 1955-1956 Bureau member, since 1956 Deputy Chairman, National Committee of USSR Historians. Until 1957 Bureau member,Department of History Science, USSR Academy of Science.
Member, Learned Council, Institute of History, and Institute of Slavonic Studies, USSR Academy of Science. Since 1957 Chairman, Commission on History, of Agriculture and Peasantry in Russia, Institute of History, USSR Academy of Science. 1955 attended 10th International Congress of History Science in Rome.
1924-1926 Director of Tours, 1926-1932 Learned Secretary, 1931-1934 Department Director, Museum of the Revolution. 1929-1932 instructor in methods of museum admin., Ethnological Faculty, Moscow University. 1934-1952 Professor, History Faculty, Moscow University.
1935-1939 instructor, Moscow City Pedagogical Institute. 1938-1940 instructor, Higher Courses, Central Committee, Communist Party Belarusian. 1943-1945 instructor, Higher Party School, Moscow.
1946-1948 instructor, Academy, of Society Science, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Every religion forces people to rely on outside authority, thus depriving them to become self-sufficient.