He apprenticed under Pembroke and Deerfield doctors before attending Dartmouth Medical College. He graduated in 1824, and began his medical practice in Somersworth.
He later practiced in Pembroke, and then settled in Dover. In 1825, Martin married Mary Jane Woodbury, the daughter of Doctor Robert Woodbury of Barrington. They were the parents of two daughters, Elizabeth A. and Caroline M.
Martin served as a State Representative in 1830 and 1832, as a State Senator in 1835 and 1836, and in the House again in 1837.
In 1852 Martin was elected Governor of New Hampshire, the first of two from Dover, and he served two one-year terms, June 3, 1852 to June 8, 1854.
Martin died in Dover on May 28, 1863, and is buried at Dover"s Pine Hill Cemetery.
In addition to being involved in several medical, agricultural, historical, and genealogical societies, Martin was president of the Strafford County Savings Bank (1844-1852), board of directors member of the Dover Bank (1847-1855), and board of directors member of the Strafford Bank (1860-1863).