Bachelor of Science, Lingnan University, 1949. Master of Science, Michigan State University, 1951. Doctor of Philosophy, California Institute of Technology, 1955.
Teaching assistant California Institute of Technology, 1952-1955, research fellow biology division, 1955-1961, senior research fellow, 1961-1962. Associate professor biophysics chemistry department radiological science Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1962-1967, professor, 1967-1973, professor, director division biophysics School Hygiene and Public Health, 1973-1990, professor department biochemistry, 1973—2003. Chairman, Chief Executive Officer Cell Works, Inc., Baltimore, 1997—2002, chairman board, chief technical officer, 2002—2004.
Managing director Commodity Credit Corporation Diagnostics, LLC, since 2004. Member board scientific counselors National Cancer Institute, since 2005. Consultant National Cancer Institute, 1972-1975.
Member study section A on biophysics and biophysics chemistry National Institutes of Health, 1976-1980. Member Clearinghouse on Environmental Carcinogens, National Cancer Institute, 1976-1980. Member European expert committee on biophysics United Nations Educational.
Member science committee of the consortium International biomedical Institute, Bari, Italy. Member board science counselors, division intramural research National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, since 1995. Member board science counselors, external advisory committee National Institutes of Health, since 1995.
Fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science. Member Biophysics Society (chairman public science policy committee 1972-1976, council member 1975-1978, executive board 1975), American Society Biological Chemists, American Society Microbiology, American Society Cell Biology, Biology Alliance for Public Affairs (chairman organizing committee 1973-1976), American Association Cancer Research, American Chemical Society, Acadmia Sinica (1st director institute molecular biology, chairman advisory committee 1982-1994), European Academy Arts, Sciences and Humanities, Sigma Xi.