Doctor of Philosophy, University Graz, Austria, 1988. Habilitation, University Göttingen, Germany, 2000.
Research fellow Max-Planck Institute for Geschichte, Göttingen, Germany, 1988—1993. Research associate German History Institute, Washington, 1993—1997. Professor central european history European University Institute, Florence, Italy, since 1997.
Head department history European University Institute, Florence, 1999—2000.
Member of GIWK (executive committee since 1999).
Married Melitta Pendl.