Doctor of Philosophy, University Frankfurt am Main, Federal Republic Germany, 1954; postdoctoral certified, College d'Europe, Bruges, Belgium, 1955.
Curator, Goethe-Museum, Düsseldorf, Federal Republic Germany, 1955-1958; resident director, Stanford University Center, Beutelsbach, Federal Republic Germany, 1958-1961; assistant professor German, associate professor, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1961-1964; professor comparative literature, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1966-1971; associate professor modern languages, State University of New York, Buffalo, 1964-1966; professor Germanic studies, comparative literature, West European studies, Indiana U., Bloomington, 1971-1994; professor emeritus, Indiana U., Bloomington, since 1995. Visiting professor German, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1967, Middlebury College, Vermont, 1968, Yale University, 1978.
Married Nancy Sanden, December 19, 1959. Children: Christopher, Hans, Nels.