Student, Swarthmore College, 1942. Bachelor of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1944. Master of Arts, Harvard University, 1948.
Master of Engineering Science, Harvard University, 1949. Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University, 1950.
Junior fellow Harvard University, 1950-1953. Assistant professor Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1953-1956, associate professor, 1956-1960, professor, head department electrical engineering, 1960-1966, Edwin S. Webster professor, 1974-1992, Webster professor emeritus, senior lecturer, from 1992. Visiting professor University California-Berkeley, 1958, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1967-1968, 83-84, Imperial College, London, 1975-1976.
Served with United States Navy, 1944-1946. Fellow American Academy Arts and Sciences, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (chairman information theory group 1965, Shannon award 1977, Centennial medal 1984, Golden Jubilee award 1998), American Association for the Advancement of Science (member council 1983, member engineering section 1986), Association Computing Machinery. Member National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Engineering, Institute of Mathematics Statistics.
Married Marjorie Forbes, July 8, 1950 (deceased February 1993). Children: Ellen, Paul, Daniel.