Bachelor, Oxford (England) University, 1946; Bachelor of Science, Oxford (England) University, 1947; Doctor of Philosophy, Columbia University, 1953.
Research associate, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, 1954-1956; research associate, Argonne (Illinois) National Laboratory, 1956-1958; research chemist, National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland., since 1958.
Plenary lecturer on photodynamic therapy Society Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Boston, 1987. Plenary lecturer in sonochemistry Royal Society.Chemistry, Bath, England, 1990.
Married Gertrude Elizabeth Bray, May 25, 1953. Children: Carol Nina, David Andrew, Steven Donald.