He received his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Pittsburgh in 1984, under the direction of David Gauthier and with significant help from Shelly Kagan.
He holds dual citizenship in the United States and Canada. He formerly taught at the University of Western Ontario (1984-1988) and Virginia Commonwealth University (1988-2003). Vallentyne has written on a variety of topics in ethical theory and political philosophy, including consequentialism, contractarianism, moral dilemmas, responsibility, equality, self-ownership, liberty, and justice.
He defends a version of equal opportunity for wellbeing left-libertarianism. Left-libertarianism and its critics: the contemporary debate. The origins of left-libertarianism: an anthology of historical writings.
Member American Philosophical Association, Canada Philosophical Association, Southern Society Philosophy and Psychology, Virginia Philosophical Association (president 1994-1995).
Married Marie Helene Pastides, June 26, 1981.