Candiaat, Doctorandus, Dr Economics University Amsterdam, 1932, 1934, 1940. Honorary Dr Economics Science State University Ghent, Belgium, 1971.
Economics, Twentsche Bank, Amsterdam, 1934-1936, Bureau Economics Research, Dutch Ministry Economics Affairs, The Hague, 1936-1938. Reader Economics (dismissed by German authorities), Professor of Economics, University Amsterdam, 1938-1945, 1945-1973. Simon Visiting Professor, University Manchester, England, 1953.
Fellow, Netherlands Institute, Institution Advanced Studies, 1971-1972. Emeritus Professor of Economics, University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, since 1973. Editorial Boards, Openbare Financien (Public Finance), 1946-1964, De Economist, since 1973.
Managing Editor, De Economist, 1946- 73.
My writings are almost entirely in the field of economic theory. They are innocent of mathematics and for the greater part they are in Dutch. There is no empirical research and little on topical issues.
They cover quite a large diversity of subjects, mostly of broad or even fundamental significance. A lifelong interest in the history of economic thought and methodlogy is particularly apparent in an early magnum opus (1945), which dissects in minute details the manifold varieties of Homo oeconomicus, concluding that the scope of economics is not restricted to the behaviour of such an animal. It is argued that the concept of economic welfare is devoid of specific content and that economics cannot be normative.
Also the connection between economics and psychology is considered. It shows the influence of the Austrian subjectivist way of thinking and of Robbin’s Essay. Later works likewise contain comprehensive critical surveys of a mass of historical and contemporary materials: a book-length study of the economics (micro and macro) of saving, attempting to reconcile the classical and Keynesian positions, and a review of the theory of economic policy. Several articles deal with special policy areas: the tension between employment and optimal trade policies, monetary policy (neutral money, 100% plan) and competition policy.
A related International Economie Association paper on the effect of monopoly on innovation is my best known contribution outside the Netherlands. Further categories are book reviews (nearly 100) and protrayals of economists, among them N. G. Pierson (in German), Pigou and William Jaffe.