In the Russian history of the beginning of the XX century Pyotr Stolypin is known first of all as the reformer and the statesman who played a significant role in suppression of revolution of 1905 — 1907. Among other actions of Stolypin on a post of the prime minister : introduction of a zemstvo in the western provinces, restriction of an autonomy of the Grand duchy Finnish, the change of electoral laws and dissolution of the II Duma.
Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin was born on April 15 (on old style - on April 2) 1862 in Dresden (Germany). It came from an old noble family, roots of the XVI century which is going back to the beginning. P. A. Stolypin's great-grandfathers were Arkady Alekseevich Stolypin (1778-1825; senator, the friend of the largest statesman of the beginning of the XIX century M. M. Speransky) and his brother - Nikolay Alekseevich Stolypin (1781-1830; the lieutenant general, is killed in Sevastopol during revolt) and etc.
In 1874 12-year-old Pyotr was enlisted in the second class of the Vilensky gymnasium where studied to the sixth class.In September, 1879 the 9th army case under command of the father was returned from Bulgaria to the city the Eagle. Pyotr and his brother Alexander were transferred to the Oryol man's gymnasium. Pyotr was enlisted in the seventh class. According to B. Fyodorov, he "was distinguished from grammar-school boys with judiciousness and character". On June 3, 1881 19-year-old Pyotr ended the Oryol gymnasium and received the school-leaving certificate. He went to St. Petersburg where on August 31 he arrived on natural office (specialty — agronomics) physical and mathematical faculty of the St. Petersburg Imperial university. During Stolypin's training in one of teachers of university there was the well-known Russian scientist D. I. Mendeleyev. He accepted at it examination in chemistry and put "perfectly".
In May 1902 Stolypin was appointed governor in Grodno, where he was the youngest person ever appointed to this position. From February, 1903 to April, 1906 Stolypin was the governor of the Saratov province. On a post of the governor of Saratov , Fyodor was found the first revolution (1905-1907) . For suppression of the country movement in the Saratov province Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin - the chamberlain of the yard of its Imperial Majesty and the youngest governor of Russia - received an official message of thanks of the emperor Nicholas II. On April 26, 1906 P. A. Stolypin was appointed the Minister of Internal Affairs in I.L. Goremykin's office. On July 8, 1906, after dissolution of the First State Duma, Stolypin became the chairman of the board of ministers . Having headed the cabinet, P. A. Stolypin proclaimed a course of socio-political reforms. Carrying out agrarian ("stolypinsky") reform was begun, under the leadership of Stolypin a number of large bills, including on reform of local government, introduction of universal primary education, the state insurance of workers, about toleration was developed. In 1907 Stolypin achieved dissolution of the 2nd State Duma and carried out the new electoral law which significantly strengthened in the Duma of a position of right-wing parties. in 1906 Stolypin was granted in stewards of the household, on January 1, 1907 is appointed the member of the State Council, in 1908 - the secretary of state.
(On a last year of studying at the university He prepared...)
As the person who is brought up in the spirit of Orthodoxy in traditions of the reverential relation to a family, the Fatherland and love to people, Stolypin constantly visited St. Alexander Nevsky Church, close to the governor's house. "Every morning, - he admitted to the friends subsequently, - I create a prayer and I look for the forthcoming day as at the last in life..." Pyotr Arkadyevich didn't refuse to become, in due time, the member of the Orthodox Brotherhood and the Trustee of Kedaynyaysky Church of the Transfiguration. After the incident in church of the fire P. A. Stolypin achieved public financing for its restoration. He suited fine parish school, having supplied it with expensive grants for out-of-school education. As the person the believer, Pyotr Arkadyevich was reverentially adjusted to orthodox Church and clergy. And as the statesman, he saw in the West Russian clergy, in view of its special historical situation in multinational edge, not only the estate intended for service at the temple and departure of sacraments. It was also obliged to bear the public and public service, influencing the mass of the orthodox population. On P. A. Stolypin's representations priests have to be in the region as if cultural representatives of the people, guardians of the Russian national interests... An important place in the program he allocated also for a religious question. A number of the bills urged to improve matters of Old Believers and violently turned into Orthodoxy of uniat entered its "package". Cancellation of the discrimination restrictions set for Christian, but not orthodox churches, permission of transition from Orthodoxy to other Christian beliefs, simplification of mixed marriages - all this had to soften sharpness of religious fight and give more legal, modern character to a political system of Russia.
On the political views Stolypin was a monarchist. The Supreme power was for him the keeper of the state unity and the social world in the multinational country. Thus he recognized need of improvement of an autocratic monarchy and was the supporter of its gradual transformation in constitutional monarchy. It defined the political system created after October 17, 1905 as the system representative, granted by the monarch and opposed restriction of the rights of national representation. As the supporter of the constitutional state, he recognized need of coordination of old laws with the beginnings of the constitutional system and fixing of the political rights and freedoms for the legislation.
Won't intimidate! — it is told by Stolypin on March 6, 1907 before deputies of the State Duma of the II convocation. After Stolypin's performance about the program of the planned reforms representatives of opposition subjected intentions of the government to sharp criticism. Having listened to them, Stolypin came again to a tribune where said the short, but capacious speech which came to an end with words: "These attacks are designed for causing in the government, in power paralysis and will, and thought, all of them are brought together to two words turned to the power: hands up!" On these two words, the Lord, the government with full tranquillity, with consciousness of the correctness can answer only with two words: "Won't intimidate!"
I don't sell blood of the children! — the phrase is provided in "Memories of my father P. A. Stolypin" of the daughter Maria. After explosion on the Pharmaceutical island as a result of which two his children — the son Arkady and the daughter Natalya hard suffered, Nicholas II offered Stolypin the significant monetary assistance, on what received the answer:
"At the first reception after explosion the Sovereign offered the father the big monetary help for treatment of children, in response to what my father told:
— Your Majesty, I don't sell blood of the children"
They need great shocks, we need Great Russia — the phrase finished Stolypin's speech of May 10, 1907 to deputies of the State Duma of the II convocation. In it Pyotr Arkadyevich spoke about the carried-out reforms, life of peasants, the property right to the earth; repeatedly I emphasized inadmissibility of nationalization or expropriation of the earth at landowners in favor of the peasantry. In end the phrase which became soon to the winged was said:
"Opponents of statehood would like to choose a way of radicalism, a way of release from the historical past of Russia, release from cultural traditions. They need great shocks, we need Great Russia!"
Give to the state of 20 years of rest internal and external, and you don't learn present Russia — in interview of one of newspapers Stolypin described the carried-out reforms which main goal, from his words, creation of a class of small land owners was that had to lead to prosperity of the country.
Search of "golden mean", "imperial way", the integrating national business between numb stagnancy of reactionaries and blind nihilism of revolutionaries was the main dignity of Stolypin. As the person, P. Stolypin differed, first of all, in personal modesty and extraordinary strong moral principles. It is difficult to imagine the bigger family man, more faithful husband. On all the habits and behavior it was almost the puritan. Anywhere there are no certificates which would indicate the opposite. Even the most sworn enemies of Stolypin couldn't but recognize it. Analyzing Pyotr Stolypin's life, sometimes you come to a conclusion that it was, probably, even by excessively "correct" person a little boring and was brightly shown only in the state activity. There are as if two Pyotr Stolypin — the quiet and peaceful family man, both the politician, the leader, the fighter, vigorous and ready to self-sacrifice. He seldom and moderately took alcoholic drinks, never smoked (though he wrote the diploma about tobacco), almost didn't play cards. He often spoke, laughing, to guests: "We have an Old Believers' house cards, neither wine, nor tobacco". Thus in clothes and food Stolypin were modest and never strove for deliberate luxury.
“V. V. Shulgin testifies that in him there was a certain low-studied force to rule. It was the person who if "didn't sit down on an imperial throne, under known circumstances would be worthy it to borrow". In its manner and shape the All-Russian dictator appeared. However the dictator to whom rough attacks or undemocratic character of behavior were integrally not peculiar. Probably, such person was also necessary to Russia in that critical time. Not incidentally both to, and after P. Stolypin's death to him contemporaries applied such significant words as "the Russian Bismarck", "the iron minister", "the last hero", "athlete", "the actual dictator", etc.
The writer S. N. Syromyatnikov about the tempered P. Stolypin's character as statesman, I wrote: "If Bismarck was called the iron chancellor for his policy, it is possible to call Stolypin the iron minister for his will power and for his self-control much more correctly. Sometimes only lit up his eye when it heard about any outrage"
Are important for P. Stolypin's characteristic of reminiscence of other his colleague on the government S. I. Timashev. "Then feature of its character connection of two ordinary mutually exclusive qualities of bewitching softness in the attitude towards people (except those who became to it across a way) with extraordinary strong, iron will and rare fearlessness made. This person really wasn't afraid of anything, wasn't afraid for the situation, even for the life. It did that found useful, without reckoning at all with how the people who had a great influence in the highest spheres will treat its actions. In case of pressure from above it always had a simple dilemma: either to overpersuade, or to leave the post, but never any compromises.
Many contemporaries considered that Pyotr Arkadyevich was extremely ambitious and ambitious. S.Yu. Witte complained that for himself and native Stolypin gives on a nose to newspapers, and for it doesn't intercede. S.E. Kryzhanovsky wrote: "… Stolypin differed in hypersensibility to personal attacks on it …" Approximately the same was told about Stolypin by V. I. Gurko and many other critics. At the same time, concrete it isn't confirmed by anything. For example, in "The Petersburg leaf" we read: "It is no secret that Stolypin personally didn't react to press attacks. The oppositional press at one Minister of Internal Affairs didn't dare to argue so freely on the minister, as at Stolypin".
The Minister of War A.F. Rediger who directly wrote: "Stolypin then, at the beginning, made on me the best impression: young, vigorous, with belief in future of Russia, it resolutely undertook on reforms. Before convocation of the 2nd Duma Council of ministers, working according to Art. 87 of Basic laws, I received the extensive legislature which Stolypin used widely for carrying out new laws, sometimes the very large. This completeness of the power, unfortunately, had bad impact on Council and in particular — on Stolypin as generated at them the exaggerated idea of their value and laid the foundation of that megalomania which, eventually, seized Stolypin"”
22-year-old Pyotr in 1884 married being the student that the then it was very not typical. For the bride there was the most solid given: an entail property of a family of Neydgardt — 4845 dessiatinas in the Chistopolsky district of the Kazan province (Itself P. A. Stolypin for 1907 had entail properties of 835 dessiatinas in Kovenskaya and 950 — in Penza provinces, and also the acquired manor in 320 dessiatinas in the Nizhny Novgorod province). Marriage was very happy. At Stolypin' couple five daughters and one son were born. Certificates on any scandals or treason in their family aren't present.
Tradition of a conservative samobytnichestvo in the Duma speeches of Pyotr Stolypin
P. A. Stolypin. Program of reforms
Russian political encyclopedia
This volume for the first time included a considerable complex of the legislative documents allowing to expand and enrich, on the one hand, scientific ideas of variety, essence, character and an orientation the stolypinskikh of the system reforms affecting everything without exception of the sphere of activity of the country, and with another - to show extent of rapid legislative response of the power to the public requirements which came to light during realization of a government reformist policy.
The edition is supplied with introduction, an epilog and comments.
memories of my father Stolypin
No, probably, in political history of Russia the beginnings of the XX century of larger statesman, than Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin. The educated bureaucrat who wasn't looking for career prospects he appeared on high posts contrary to the desire. The convinced monarchist and the radical reformer. The progressionist and the educator in the opinion of one — and the double-dyed reactionary for others. The statesman in every way trying to prevent "great shocks", but who didn't manage to make it.
Remembering the father, his oldest daughter Maria von Bock (1886–1985) alternates lyrical family stories disturbing and bitter stories about destiny of the country entering one of the most dramatic periods of the life.