He was at first a disciple of Tanso Hirose and later studied Confucianism under Kando Hagura at Edo.
Randen Taniguchi subsequently founded a private school at Arita during the Koka Era (1844-1847) and taught there for several years. He founded another school in 1866 at Nagasaki and began taking interest in politics under the influence of Taneomi Soejima.
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868 he was invited by Lord Nabeshima to help as an administrator of the Kashima Clan. In 1875, he became head of the Kashima-Gijuku (school) and eventually private tutor to Prince Kitashirakawa. Also he wrote several books.