He studied at military college following his graduation from the Kuleli Military High School, where he enrolled after completing his primary and secondary education at Koca Mustafa Pasha Primary School and Military Middle School. Recep Peker took part at the battles of Yemen and Libya, Balkan Wars, Thrace and Caucasus campaigns of the World War I. He graduated in 1919, as the first of his class, from the Staff College to which he entered in 1911.
He served in various ministerial posts and finally as the Prime Minister of Turkey. He is Lezgi. After finishing the academy in the rank of a lieutenant in 1907, he was assigned to the staff officer class. At the second half of 1919, he served as assistant teacher of history of war at the Military Academy.
He joined on 4 February 1920, the Turkish War of Independence in Anatolia as a squadron leader.
He was appointed secretary general of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 23 April 1920, the day the parliament was opened. He served in this position more than three years.
In the time between his appointment as the parliament"s secretary general until the Battle of Sakarya, he served in addition as the chief of Second Branch Office at the General Staff. On 12 July 1923, he was re-elected into the parliament as the deputy from Kütahya.
He was the Minister of Finance between 6 March and 22 November 1924, and Minister of Interior and on commission the Minister of Barter and Minister of Development and Housing.
Peker was appointed as the Minister of National Defence on 4 March 1926, and the Minister of Public Works in 1927. He was elected the parliamentary group spokesman and secretary general of the Republican People"s Party (CHP) in 1928. Recep Peker initiated the introduction of the "History of the Revolution" in the school curriculums.
He taught the topic at universities in Ankara and Istanbul, as well as at the Military Academies.
He wrote a book about lieutenant On 17 August 1942, he was appointed Minister of Interior in the cabinet of Şükrü Saracoğlu serving nine months.
He served in this position until 7 September 1947. In 1948, he retired from the political life.
Recep Peker died on 2 April 1950, and was laid to rest at the Edirnekapı Martyr"s Cemetery in Istanbul.
Recep Peker became the first prime minister of the multi-party period on 7 August 1946.