Richard Edler von Mises was born on April 19, 1883, in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine) to a Jewish family given the Austrian nobility. His father, Arthur Edler von Mises, worked for the Austrian State Railways as a technical expert. On his travels all over the empire, he was often accompanied by his family, and von Mises was born on one of these journeys. The family home was in Vienna. His mother was Adele von Landau. His father’s family included engineers, physicians, bankers, and civil servants. Among the members of his mother’s family were philologists and bibliophiles. Richard was the second son of the family, the elder son being Ludwig von Mises who went on to become as famous as Richard. Ludwig, who was about eighteen months older than Richard, went on to become an economist who contributed to liberalism in economic theory and made his belief in consumer power an important part of that theory. Richard also had a younger brother, who died as an infant.