Taft attended Yale University and Harvard Law School.
He also served as a United States. Senator between 1971 and 1976. During World World War II, Taft served as an officer in the United States Navy from 1942 to 1946. Taft served in the Ohio House of Representatives from 1955 to 1962 until winning election to the United States House of Representatives.
In 1955 he became a compatriot of the Sons of the American Revolution.
In 1964, rather than running for re-election to the House, he ran for the United States. Senate, but he lost to Stephen M. Young. In 1966, Taft returned to the House of Representatives, unseating Democratic incumbent (and future Governor of Ohio) John Jay Gilligan.
Taft, however, lost six years later in a rematch against Metzenbaum. He resigned six days before the end of his term to resume the practice of law.
On November 29, 1993, Taft suffered a stroke and fell into a coma.
He never woke from the coma and died on December 7, 1993. Robert Junior. was a great-grandson of Secretary of War Alphonso Taft, grandson of President William Howard Taft and First Lady Helen Louise "Nellie" Herron as well as Lloyd Wheaton Bowers and Louisa Bennett Wilson. He was the second son of Senator Robert Alphonso Taft, Senior
(1889-1953) and Martha Wheaton Bowers (1889-1958).
In 1939 Robert Junior. married Blanca Duncan Noel (1917-1968), daughter of Lewis West. Noel and Natalie Duncan. They were the parents of Ohio Governor Robert Alphonso "Bob" Taft III, Sarah Butler Taft, Deborah Taft, and Jonathan Duncan Taft.
They divorced in 1977. Joan died on January 16, 2015.
At Yale he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity.