Robert Augustine Thompson was a United States. Representative from Virginia, father of Thomas Larkin Thompson.
Born near Culpeper Court House, Virginia, Thompson attended a private school at Gallipolis, Ohio, and the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, Virginia. He studied law.
He was admitted to the bar in 1826 and commenced practice in Charleston, Virginia (now West Virginia). Thompson was elected as a Democrat to the Thirtieth Congress (March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1849). He declined to be a candidate for reelection.
He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1852.
He moved to San Francisco, California, in 1853. He was appointed by the Governor a reporter of the California Supreme Court in 1870.
He was interred in Laurel Hill Cemetery.
He served as member of the State senate 1839–1846. He served as member of the board of visitors to the University of Virginia in 1852. He was appointed in 1853 a member of a commission to settle private land claims in California.
He served as member of the justices" court of San Francisco from 1870 until his death in San Francisco, California, August 31, 1876.