Bachelor, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 1959. Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965.
Assistant director Burndy Library., Norwalk, Connecticut, 1970—1973. Assistant professor University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, since 1973, professor emeritus.
Member of History Science Society (advisory editor 1987-1992, Sarton Lifetime Achievement medal 2004).
Married Frances Coulborn, June 6, 1958. Children: Robert C., William E.