Bachelor magna cum laude, Stanford University, 1947; Master of Arts, Stanford University, 1948; Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, 1953.
Instructor history, Princeton University, 1954-1959; assistant professor, Princeton University, 1959-1960; research associate Center of International Studies, Princeton University, 1954-1960; associate professor East Asian history and international studies, U. Washington, Seattle, 1960-1966; professor, U. Washington, Seattle, 1966-1990; professor emeritus, U. Washington, Seattle, since 1990. Member Institute for Advanced Study, 1962-1963.
Second lieutenant United States Army, 1943-1946. Member Association of Members of Institute for Advanced Study, Society Historians of America Foreign Relations, World War Two Studies Association.
Son of Frederick water closet and Louise Marie B. Married Irene Elkeles. 1 child, Stephanie Cecile.